Havard Referencing

Basic Principles: Harvard referencing involves citing sources in two ways: in-text citations and a reference list at the end of the document.

  1. In-text Citations: These are brief references in the body of your text, providing key information like the author’s surname and the year of publication. They enable the reader to locate the full reference in the reference list.

  2. Reference List: This appears at the end of your document. It provides full details of every source cited in-text, allowing readers to find and consult these sources.

In-text Citation Format:

  • Single Author: (Author’s Surname, Year)
    • Example: (Smith, 2020)
  • Two Authors: (Author1 and Author2, Year)
    • Example: (Smith and Jones, 2020)
  • Three or More Authors: (First Author et al., Year)
    • Example: (Smith et al., 2020)
  • Direct Quote: Include page number(s)
    • Example: (Smith, 2020, p. 15)

Reference List Format:

  • Book: Author’s Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher.
    • Example: Smith, J. (2020) Understanding Biology. London: Academic Press.
  • Journal Article: Author’s Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of the article’, Title of the Journal, Volume number (Issue number), Page range.
    • Example: Smith, J. (2020) ‘Cellular Functions in Mammals’, Journal of Biology, 15(4), pp. 123-135.
  • Website: Author’s Surname, Initial(s) or Organization. (Year) Title of the web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Important Tips:

  • Always list references in alphabetical order by author’s surname.
  • Ensure consistency in formatting throughout the document.
  • For sources without a clear author, use the organization’s name or the title of the work.
  • For multiple works by the same author in the same year, use ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc. after the year.
    • Example: (Smith, 2020a), (Smith, 2020b).

Example Text:

Title: The Impact of High-Intensity Interval Training on Weight Loss

Introduction High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has gained popularity as an effective method for weight loss and improving cardiovascular health (Smith, 2020). This article explores the benefits of HIIT and how it compares to traditional steady-state cardio.

Body HIIT involves short bursts of intense exercise followed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise. This method has been found to be particularly effective for burning calories and increasing metabolic rate, even after the workout is completed (Jones and Taylor, 2021).

A study by Thompson et al. (2019) demonstrated that participants who engaged in HIIT workouts three times a week for eight weeks lost more body fat compared to those who performed steady-state cardio. Additionally, HIIT was shown to improve cardiovascular fitness, as measured by VO2 max, more significantly than steady-state exercises (Brown et al., 2018).

Another aspect of HIIT is its time efficiency. Due to its high intensity, HIIT sessions can be shorter than traditional workouts while still yielding comparable or even superior results (Green and Roberts, 2020). This makes HIIT an attractive option for individuals with busy schedules.

However, it is important to note that HIIT may not be suitable for everyone. High-intensity workouts can be challenging for beginners or individuals with certain health conditions (Wilson, 2019). It is always recommended to consult a fitness professional before starting any new exercise regimen.

Conclusion In summary, HIIT offers a time-efficient way to lose weight and improve cardiovascular health. While it is an effective workout method, it is essential to consider individual fitness levels and health conditions before participating in HIIT sessions.


  • Brown, A., Patel, C., and Lee, D. (2018) ‘Comparative Effects of HIIT Versus Moderate-Intensity Cardio on Body Fat Percentage’, Journal of Fitness Research, 7(2), pp. 45-53.
  • Green, D. and Roberts, L. (2020) ‘Time-Efficiency and High-Intensity Interval Training’, Journal of Health and Exercise, 12(3), pp. 200-207.
  • Jones, M. and Taylor, K. (2021) ‘Metabolic Impact of High-Intensity Interval Training’, Sports Science Review, 15(4), pp. 123-130.
  • Smith, J. (2020) HIIT and Cardiovascular Health. London: Fitness Press.
  • Thompson, R., Mark, S., and Willis, P. (2019) ‘HIIT for Weight Loss: A 8-Week Study’, International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(5), pp. 789-796.
  • Wilson, T. (2019) ‘Assessing Suitability for High-Intensity Interval Training’, Fitness and Health Journal, 8(1), pp. 34-40.